Middleburg was established in 1864 in mountainous country on the banks of the Klein Olifants River and got its name because it lay half way between Pretoria and Mashishing (Lydenburg).

It is a busy point on the trunkroad and railway from Pretoria to Mpumalanga.

On the road to Groblerdal, 13 km out of Middelburg is the little stronghold of Fort Merensky, built in 1865 by Sotho tribesmen and their missionary, the Rev Alexander Merensky. It was intended as a defence against raiding warriors of the Pedi and the Swazi tribes.

The Kruger Dam on the outskirts of Middelburg is popular for swimming and fishing.

The area is recognised for its herbal plant life that grows naturally in the fields, and is also one of the few and best places in the world where fossil life has been discovered, as well as San Rock Art from the first known human inhabitants, the San Bushmen.

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